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Double stem cell for faster relief of sickle cell disease

Phytoscience Apple Stem Cell Research

Live blood analysis after intake of Phytoscience Double stem cells

Apple Stem Cells against Aging Skin: What Does Research Say?

In humans, aging causes a reduction of the number of epidermal stem cells required to regenerate healthy new skin and the remaining stem cells function less efficiently. When epidermal stem cells are reduced, lost or dying skin cells outnumber the production of new stem cells, the skin’s health and appearance suffer.

In recent years, scientists have conducted extensive research on embryonic stem cellswhich have shown potential to repair damaged tissues and organs. Because of this potential, researchers have looked into using stem cells in skincare care products to help repair wrinkles and restore and maintain firmness and elasticity.

However, it is not possible to use live human embryonic stem cells in skincare products, so skincare companies have turned to plant stem cells. Like humans, plants also have stem cells. In theory, plant stem cells can protect the human epidermal stem cells from damage and deterioration, and they can stimulate them to renew the skin.

 

The most promising stem cell so far has come from an apple. A rare type of apple tree, cultivated in Switzerland over 300 years ago, was known for a remarkably long shelf life. A few of these trees were found on a Swiss mountainside. The apples from this tree, known as Uttwiler Spätlauber, contain extremely active stem cells. Scientists have extracted stem cells from this type of apple and have used this extraction.

In a paper published in the Journal of Applied Sciences, the cosmetics industry journal, Swiss scientists observed that these apples formed a protective film made of stem cells on the surface when they cut the apples into pieces. They then grew these “film” cells in a liquid culture and tested them. A solution containing 1% apple stem cells appeared to enhance human stem cell production by 80 percent.

In further studies, human cells were irradiated with ultraviolet light, killing 50 percent of those grown in a normal liquid culture, but only a few of the cells protected by the apple stem cells were harmed. In addition, hair follicles placed in a solution of apple stem cells continued to grow for 4 days more than those stored in a control solution.

Finally, in a human trial to determine the effectiveness of a new anti-wrinkle cream, scientists tested a cream containing a 2% Uttwiler Spätlauber extract (patented as PhytoCell-Tec Malus Domestica) and lecithin liposomes. Twenty participants applied this cream twice daily to the areas of their face with crow’s feet for four weeks. It was found that wrinkle depth was reduced by an average of 15% after four weeks (SOFW Journal. 2008;134(5):30-5.) With these results, skincare companies flocked to obtain this new extract for their products.

Numerous products containing apple stem cells were released onto the market, demanding premium prices for this new plant stem cell technology. These products claim to protect longevity of skin cells and combat skin aging. However, plant biologists are sceptical of these claims. Renowned plant biologist, Professor Liam Dolan of Oxford University has been quoted as saying he does not see how plant stem cells could react with human cells.

The research director of Mibelle Biochemistry, Dr Daniel Schmid, the Swiss lab that developed PhytoCellTec Malus Domestica, maintains that his research has shown that the apple stem cell extracts have improved the abilities of epidermal stem cells to maintain their rejuvenation capabilities and longevity. Dr. Schmid did admit, however, that the anti-aging effects were not proven by clinical trials.

Dr. Gary Goldfaden, a board-certified clinical dermatologist, and founder of Academy Dermatology in Hollywood, FL, and COSMESIS Skin Care wrote an article in 2009 for Life Extension Magazine, reporting the amazing benefits of PhytoCell-Tec Malus Domestica and relating the results of Dr. Schmid’s research.

However, Dr. Goldfaden did state that other ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, red seaweed extract, and an antioxidant tea blend are blended with the apple stem cell extract. Hyaluronic acid has been researched extensively and used as an anti-aging agent on skin for years.

Stem Cell Technology and the Skin

A look at the current research on plant-derived stem cell extracts and their potential role in cosmeceutical and skin care products.

The ability to replace, instead of simply repairing, damaged skin cells is becoming more of a possibility with the advancements in plant stem cell technology. Scientific research supports the use of certain plant stem cell extracts, but further research may be needed to support the efficacy of others.

At this time, much of the research focuses on the photo-protective properties of dietary botanicals, citing the potential of topical products that use plant extracts with the same characteristics. Keeping abreast of plant-derived stem cell research as it evolves is essential for making optimal treatment choices as plant stem cell technology is incorporated into anti-aging skin care.

Skin Stem Cells

Before considering the addition of stem cells into cosmeceuticals, it is critical to understand the role of stem cells in the skin. The majority of skin stem cells reside in the basal layer of the epidermis. Their primary function is to replenish the skin as it undergoes normal homeostasis and wound repair. Like all stem cells, those in the epidermis are undifferentiated and capable of dividing themselves for extended periods of time and differentiating into multiple data suggests that the loss of a stem cell in lineages based on their tissue origin.

 

When a stem cell divides, the daughter cells have the potential to either remain a stem cell, like the parent cell, or they can differentiate into cells with a more specialized function known as progenitor cells. After these progenies experience several rapid divisions in the basal layer, they cease dividing and travel through the supra-basal layers to the tissue surface. Once there, they progressively differentiate, switching from expression of one set of keratins to another. Eventually their nuclei degenerate, producing an outer layer of dead keratinized cells that are shed. Stem cells continuously renew the epidermis, with a turnover time of approximately 1 month. Epidermal stem cells also are stored in a microenvironment called the bulge, which is located at the base of the hair follicle. They remain dormant there until recruited by neighbouring cells to help repair the skin.

The stem cell’s characteristics are determined by the epigenetic signal it receives. The existence of several distinct, highly compartmentalized stem cell populations have been reported in the literature. The data suggests that the loss of a stem cell in one structural unit is quickly replaced by stem cells in the adjacent unit, which demonstrates the multi-potential nature and developmental flexibility of skin cells.

Skin Cell Damage

Although the skin constantly renews itself throughout an adult’s lifetime, these long-term self-renewing stem cells begin to regenerate more slowly as part of the aging process. It is believed that the impaired wound healing rate in aging skin may be due either to impaired stem cell mobilization or a reduced number of stem cells able to respond to proliferative signals.

Lost or dying cells begin to outnumber their regenerated counterparts, which likely leads to common signs of aging, such as rhytids and laxity. It is for this reason that stem cells make intriguing additions to anti-aging products. Additionally, ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes damage to the skin, including photo-aging, inflammation, erythema, sunburn and cancers. Photo-aging is characterized by wrinkles, altered pigmentation and loss of skin tone.

Specifically, ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation have been proven to produce DNA damage directly and indirectly through oxidative stress. Solar radiation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which interact with proteins, lipids and DNA, altering cellular functions. Although the epidermis is composed primarily of keratinocytes that are rich in ROS detoxifying enzymes, an increased generation of ROS can overwhelm the skin’s natural defenses.

Furthermore, ROS have been shown to mediate the phosphorylatin of protein kinases through a series of cascades, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and activate transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-KB (NF-KB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1).These activities may con- tribute to cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammation and cancer. The up-regulation of gene expression through intracellular signal transduction pathways likely contributes to the development of skin cancer at the tumour promotion stage.Since this stage is reversible, it is a prime target for preventing, reversing or slowing the process. Stem cells have been proven to be protective against UV-induced radiation and ROS through a variety of mechanisms. It is this protective quality that also makes them useful for daily use in skin care.

Plant Stem Cells Benefit Human Skin

In recent years, researchers have identified naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity proven to protect skin stem cells from UV-induced oxidative stress, inhibit inflammation, neutralize free radicals and reverse the effects of photo-aging. Consequently, cosmeceutical products containing extracts derived from plant stem cells have the ability to promote healthy cell proliferation and protect against UV-induced cellular damage in humans. In contrast to epidermal stem cells, plant stem cells are toti-potent, meaning they are capable of regenerating an entirely new, whole plant.

Through innovative plant stem cell technology, scientists are able to extract tissue from botanicals. Thus, the plant’s ability to regenerate stem cells can be harnessed for use in humans. The use of stem cells derived from botanicals, rather than human stem cells, avoids the controversy surrounding the source or methods of extraction of human stem cells while still harnessing the potential of these intriguing cells.

Research Supports Plant Stem Cell Extracts

There are several plant-derived stem cell extracts available for cosmeceutical use; however, research has predominately focused on three with various levels of scientific rigor. Components found in grape, lilac and Swiss apple have been shown to be rich sources of phytostem cells. Probably the most widely and longest studied botanical is the vitis vinifera, otherwise known as the grape seed.

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Studies dating back more than a decade suggest that grape seeds are known to contain anti-inflammatory properties, prevent skin aging, scavenge oxygen free radicals and inhibit UV radiation-induced activity. More recently published in vitro and in vivo studies have identified proanthocyanidins — a group of polyphenolic bioflavonoids — in grape seeds and their stem cells as being responsible for its high anti-tumour-promoting activity because of their strong antioxidant effect.

The mechanism of action is not entirely understood, but it appears that the photo- protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are mediated, at least, through protection of the endogenous antioxidant defense system and prevention of photo-damage of macromolecules, lipids, proteins and DNA, which leads to inhibition of activation of the MAPK and NF- kB pathways. Some studies have demonstrated that GSPs exert a significantly stronger oxygen free radical scavenging effect than vitamins C and E. When topically applied, GSPs have demonstrated substantial photo-protective effects.

As an example, when a gel formation containing Jacquez grapes was topically applied to healthy human volunteers, it afforded significant in vivo protection against UVB light-induced skin erythema. Like grape seed, verbascoside extracted from various plants, including the syringa vulgaris or common lilac, is known to have antioxidant properties. When studied in vitro and in vivo, verbascoside was found to possess significantly accelerated wound healing and remarkable anti-inflammatory action. These effects were attributed to its ability to inhibit the ROS release by recruiting pro-inflammatory cells to the damaged skin. In fact, the verbascoside-containing extracts were found to be more effective than both hydrocortisone and triamcinolone in inhibiting inflammation.

Although verbascoside is known to rapidly repair DNA oxidative damage, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. In one study, verbascoside dramatically impaired NF-kB and AP-1 binding activity, suggesting that it has distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. The verbascoside may offer protection of the skin from both inflammatory and environmental insults. However, other studies attribute verbascoside’s ability to quickly repair DNA damage to its non-enzymatic fast repair mechanisms and not to its scavenging activity for ROS. Its fast repair reaction has the added benefit of preventing the ROS from causing further damage. While other plant stem cell extracts are currently being used in topical products, further research should be done to prove the efficacy.

An ingredient manufacturer’s study showed that a 0.1% concentration of stem cells extracted from Swiss apple stimulated the proliferation of human stem cells by 80%.28 In a trial with 20 patients, a cream containing the apple extract was found to reduce wrinkle depth by 8% after 2 weeks and 15% after 4 weeks.Similarly, a cream and serum containing stem cells extracted from the edelweiss plant, which has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory properties, is reported to reduce wrinkle depth. Additional research is needed to verify the validity of these studies.

Extracts Can Enhance Topical Products

Currently, much of the scientific research focuses on the use of dietary botanicals. However, many researchers acknowledge the potential benefits of their use in sunscreens, skin care topicals and moisturizing creams. The key to developing effective cosmeceutical products is recognizing that the various plants have different properties as well as different mechanisms of action.

Thus, products should be formulated to target the specific botanical’s effects. As an example, both grape seed and verbascoside have been proven to protect skin from UV oxidative stress. Although sunscreens are incredibly valuable, their inability to completely prevent UV-induced skin cancer — due to inadequate patient use and incomplete spectral protection — demonstrates the need for additional chemo-preventive methods.

Using sunscreens in conjunction with phyto stem cell-rich ingredients harnesses the photo-protective properties of these plants, which may be useful in providing additional prevention against UV-induced skin damage and other skin disorders caused by UV radiation. For example, components of grape stem cell extract have been shown to absorb radiation from the entire UVB spectrum and part of the UVA spectrum, and when applied topically they can provide additional protection against radiation penetration.

Additionally, these stem cell-rich botanicals are known to inhibit inflammation and combat destructive free radical injury that leads to photo-aging. Combining stem cell extracts from grape and lilac leaf with other anti-aging ingredients, such as neuropeptides, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-hydroxy acids, can yield an ideal combination that can work synergistically to treat and protect the skin.

As the scientific support for plant-derived stem cell research continues to grow, it is important to understand what these botanicals offer and how they work. In doing so, plant stem cell extracts scientifically proven to work can be incorporated into cosmeceutical products that hold the promise of not only stimulating the proliferation of human skin stem cells, but also protecting the skin from UV-induced oxidative damage.

Chemical peels have been in the market for a while now as a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method of treatment to refresh and rejuvenate skin with the goal of stimulating new skin growth and improving surface texture and appearance. This talk focuses on one of the most advanced peels in the market, with a new nanotechnology which is called a Stem Cell Peel which is derived from the Malus Domestica (Swiss Green Apple) stem cells.

Stem Cell Peel is a biphasic peel i.e., it consists of two phases, a liquid phase and a solid phase. All peels available in the market just remove layers of the epidermis, leaving it to heal by its self. The Stem Cell however; being a biphasic peel acts by:

Liquid phase: When applied to the skin, it lyses the upper layers of the epidermis with the help of epidermal lysing factors.

The second phase of the Stem Cell Peel is the solid phase: where in a cream that contains growth factors that are derived from the Malus Domestica (Swiss Green Apple) stem cells is applied. The solid phase apart from helping to neutralize the solution from the liquid phase, also promotes growth of new epidermal cells. The new epidermal cells are rich in epidermal growth factors (EGFs) which stimulate endothelial chemotaxis and promote angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) which enhance angiogenesis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF- B) which stimulates matrix synthesis.

Stem Cell Peels contain kojic acid 1%, lactic acid 25%, mandelic acid 3%, gylocic acid 0.37% and citric acid 7.29% acting both as a superficial as well as medium-depth peel penetrating up to the epidermo-dermal junction. Repeated Stem Cell Peels cause slight thickening in the dermis thus leading to the reduction in fine lines and fine wrinkles. Since the peel rejuvenates the dermis and stimulates collagen synthesis, it is an effective anti-aging peel. It can also be used on Scars. Especially atrophic and pigmented scars have been seen to respond well with this peel.

In-vivo and in-vitro tests carried out by Biotex showed that Stem Cell Peel can treat atrophic scars. Sixteen volunteers with atrophic scars all over the body were chosen and were treated with Stem Cell Peel. They all showed a marked improvement with two or three consecutive peels fifteen days apart.

For one to get an optimum effect, 6-7 peels are recommended, 15-20 days apart. Stem Cell Peel is relatively inexpensive and generally safe method for treatment of vast skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin effectively with great results.

Stem cells in skin care…What does it really mean?

Stem cells have recently become a huge buzzword in the skincare world. But what does this really mean? Skincare specialists are not using embryonic stem cells; it is impossible to incorporate live materials into a skincare product. Instead, companies are creating products with specialized peptides and enzymes or plant stem cells which, when applied topically on the surface, help protect the human skin stem cells from damage and deterioration or stimulate the skin’s own stem cells. National Stem Cell was one of the few companies who actually incorporated into their skin care an enzyme secreted from human embryonic stem cells, but they are in the process of switching over to use non-embryonic stem cells from which to take the beneficial enzyme.

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. When a stem cell divides, it can remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a skin cell. There are two types of stem cells, embryonic and adult.Embryonic stem cells are exogenous in that they are harvested from outside sources, namely, fertilized human eggs. Once harvested, these pluri-potent stem cells are grown in cell cultures and manipulated to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat injury or disease.

Unlike embryonic stem cells, adult or multi-potent stem cells are endogenous. They are present within our bodies and serve to maintain and repair the tissues in which they are found. Adult stem cells are found in many organs and tissues, including the skin. In fact, human skin is the largest repository of adult stem cells in the body. Skin stem cells reside in the basal layer of the epidermis where they remain dormant until they are activated by tissue injury or disease.

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There is controversy surrounding the use of stem cells, as some experts say that any product that claims to affect the growth of stem cells or the replication process is potentially dangerous, as it may lead to out-of-control replication or mutation. Others object to using embryonic stem cells from an ethical point of view. Some researchers believe that the use of stem cell technology for a topical, anti-aging cosmetic trivializes other, more important medical research in this field.

The skin stem cells are found near hair follicles and sweat glands and lie dormant until they “receive” signals from the body to begin the repair mode. In skincare, the use of topical products stimulates the stem cell to split into two types of cells: a new, similar stem cell and a “daughter” cell, which is able to create almost every kind of new cell in a specialized system. This means that the stem cell can receive the message to create proteins, carbohydrates and lipids to help repair fine lines, wrinkles and restore and maintain firmness and elasticity.

First to the market in Britain in April 2007 and the U.S. was ReVive’s Peau Magnifique, priced at a staggering £1,050. Manufacturers claim it uses an enzyme called telomerase to “convert resting adult stem cells to newly-minted skin cells” and “effectively resets your skin’s “ageing clock” by a minimum of five years”. The product claims long-term use ‘will result in a generation of new skin cells, firmer skin with a 45 per cent reduction in wrinkles and increased long-term skin clarity’. Peau Magnifique is the latest in a line of products developed by Dr Gregory Bays Brown, a former plastic surgeon.

In the course of his research into healing burns victims, Dr Brown discovered a substance called Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) that is released in the body when there is an injury, and, when applied to burns or wounds, dramatically accelerates the healing process. He believed the same molecule could be used to regenerate ageing skin and went on to develop ReVive, a skincare range based around it.

Hot on the heels of Peau Magnifique was Amatokin by Voss Laboratories. Amatokin was marketed by the same people behind the StriVectin craze and launched exclusively at Bloomingdale’s. Amatokin works by stimulating the adult stem cell reservoirs in our skin to help rejuvenate it. From the day we are born, our skin experiences the incremental and cumulative effects of intrinsic and extrinsic aging. When we are young, stem cell utilization for skin rejuvenation functions efficiently. As we age, it reduces significantly. Given the proper environment, these inherent stem cell reservoirs can be stimulated to renew the skin.

Studies show that aging and damage from UV rays and pollution cause a decrease in stem-cell production. Pincelli and LVMH laboratories in 2008 identified key ingredients with the ability to protect the stem cells from external factors and produced Dior’s Capture R60/80 XP. In lab tests, skin samples collected from cosmetic-surgery patients showed more stem cells in the areas where cream had been applied because it protects existing stem cells from damage, not because it increased the number of stem cells. Says Dr. Pincelli “That power is absolutely vital for epidermal regeneration and for maintaining the skin’s youthful appearance”.

According to Petrikovsky, foetal skin heals in a completely different way to adult skin. “Adult skin heals via an inflammatory response, involving macrophages and type 1 collagen. On the other hand, foetal skin, when it is healing, relies heavily on the skin’s stem cells and fibroblasts”. One of the most important differences between adult and foetal skin is the fact that foetal skin heals without scarring. A wrinkle is a small wound. For this reason, Petrikovsky has been looking at ways we can activate the adult stem cells in the skin to perform in similar ways to those in foetal skin. One substance he has found that can up-regulate the stem cell activity of adult skin is Peptide 199, an amino acid chain derived from the Wharton Jelly, a gelatinous substance found in the umbilical cord. This up-regulation ensures the fibroblast dominance over the inflammatory process during skin repair, mimicking the process that occurs in foetal skin, healing without a scar or wrinkle.

Emerge Labs new Swiss Apple Stem Cell Serum allows plant stem cells to preserve and protect skin stem cells. PhytoCellTech® – a novel plant cell culture technology has been invented to cultivate dedifferentiated callus cells from a rare Swiss apple. These apple stem cells are rich in epigenetic factors and metabolites, assuring the longevity of skin cells. The Skin Stem Cell Serum protects longevity and combats chronological aging while delaying senescence of skin cells, preserving the youthful look and vitality of one’s skin.

The Institute for Biotechnological Research (IRB) has released an anti-aging ingredient based on edelweiss stem cells. “As edelweiss grows in harsh climates it is obliged to produce a number of active substances that help protect against the elements such as UV rays,” IRB’s Francesca Melandri says. The edelweiss active harnesses the protective substances the plant uses to defend itself against harsh climatic and environmental conditions and uses them to protect the skin. According to the Italian company. the ingredient, Leontopodium alpinum stems, has high concentrations of leontopodic acids A and B which have strong antioxidant properties. IRB also claims the product has strong anti-collagenase and hyaluronidase actvity, therefore helping to limit the degradation of collagen and hyaluronic acid in the skin.

The company uses what it refers to as its HTN technology to produce the ingredients in industrial quantities. A small amount of plant biomass is chopped into tiny pieces and placed in a culture medium. Damaging the plant in this way causes the cells that surround the damage to de-differentiate (to turn back into stem cells) and form a wound healing tissue called “the callus”.

The callus is then harvested and grown in a cell culture medium and from this IRB obtains the plant stem cells and consequently the secondary metabolites they need for their products.Although the technology is well known, the challenge lies in successfully scaling up the production of the stem cells to industrial quantities – a problem IRB claims to have solved with its HTN technology.

XTEMcell Stem Cell SkinCare has come out with its Cell Renewal Night Cream, Reset Serum, Cell Rebuilding Daytime Cream, and Repair Eye Contour Cream.According to the company, XtemCell’s Patented Stem Cell Technology uses active plant cells from rare, 100% organic, nutrient-rich plants to create new cells of the highest in purity and nutrients. These new cells are able to deliver high concentrations of lipids, proteins, amino-acids and phytoalexins. They are easily absorbed into the outermost cells of the epidermis, allowing for almost immediate skin cell renewal, nutrient absorption, and an increase in the skin’s level of filaggrin proteins. According to the company, “conventional plant cell extraction is only able to obtain these nutrients in smaller and far less potent quantities. Traditional plant cell cloning uses harsh chemicals or pollutants to reproduce active cells.

XTEMcell products are made from cloned stem cells from the date palm, chosen for cloning because of its unparalleled ability to live and thrive in the desert in the driest, most arid areas and be able to remain hydrated and conserve water. Xtemcell cloned these desirable properties and created a series of age-maintenance skincare products that contain 100% organic stem cells that promote a superior moisturization of the skin.

National Stem Cell is pursuing a different route to younger looking skin. It’s subsidiary Decouverte Cosmetique is producing anti-aging products that incorporate tropelastin secreted from human embryonic stem cells. National Stem Cell changed its name to Proteonomix a month after launching a stem cell based cosmeceutical line in Aug 2008.
The company claims the ingredient enhances the natural formation of collagen and binds with existing protein chains in the skin to make it appear smoother and firmer.

Tropelastin already affects skin appearance naturally in pregnant women. The inspiration for the products came from the natural glow of women post-conception, caused by the release of the chemical from embryonic stem cells. The company says that the products escape the health risk warning flags out because they do not affect the growth of stem cells. However, the products formulated by Decouverte Cosmetique may be particularly controversial from an ethical or moral point of view because the active ingredient is sourced from human embryonic stem cells. However, National Stem Cell says that all the stem cells used were harvested before 2001 and none were destroyed or created in the development of the products. The company is also in the final stages of discovering how to source the key material from non-embryonic stem cells thereby weakening the ethical barrier to commercialization.

Thus we can see that there are already many choices in skin care products with specialized peptides and enzymes or plant stem cells which, when applied topically stimulate the skin’s own stem cells. Expect many more good choices to be developed in the years to come!

Life Extension Magazine November 2008
Report

Apple Stem Cells Offer Hope For Aging and Damaged Skin By Gary Goldfaden, MD

As we age, the reduced turnover of our cells means we can lose control over how our skin ages. Epidermal stem cells needed to create healthy new skin are significantly reduced and function less efficiently. A discovery based on promising plant stem cell research may allow you to regain control.

 

Scientists have found that a novel extract derived from the stem cells of a rare apple tree cultivated for its extraordinary longevity shows tremendous ability to rejuvenate aging skin. By stimulating aging skin stem cells, this plant extract has been shown to lessen the appearance of unsightly wrinkles. Clinical trials show that this unique formulation increases the longevity of skin cells, resulting in skin that has a more youthful and radiant appearance.

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Stem Cells

Cells in our bodies are programmed for specific functions. A skin cell, a brain cell, and a liver cell all contain the same DNA, or set of genes. However, each cell’s fate is determined by a set of epigenetic (able to change gene expression patterns) signals that come from inside it and from the surrounding cells as well. These signals are like command tags attached to the DNA that switch certain genes on or off.

This selective coding creates all of the different kinds of cells in our bodies, which are collectively known as differentiated (specialized) cells.

 

Although differentiated cells vary widely in purpose and appearance, they all have one thing in common: they all come with a built-in operational limit. After so many divisions, they lose their ability to divide and must be replaced. This is where stem cells come in.

Your body also produces other cells that contain no specific programming. These stem cells are “blank,” so your body can essentially “format” them any way it pleases. Two universal aspects shared by this type of cell are: (1) the ability to replenish itself through a process of self-renewal and (2) the capacity to produce a differentiated cell.

In animals and humans, two basic kinds of stem cells exist: embryonic and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells have the power to change into any differentiated cell type found anywhere in your body. Adult stem cells, on the other hand, are generally more limited. They can only evolve into the specific type of cell found in the tissue where they are located. The primary function of these adult stem cells is maintenance and repair.

But certain adult stem cells found in nature retain the unlimited developmental potential that embryonic stem cells possess. These cells have become the main focus for an exciting new wave of regenerative medicine (repairing damaged or diseased tissues and organs using advanced techniques like stem cell therapy and tissue engineering).

The Role of Stem Cells in the Skin

The basal (innermost) layer of the skin’s epidermis comprises two basic types of cells: (1) the slowly dividing epidermal stem cells (that represent about 2-7% of the basal cell population) and (2) their rapidly dividing offspring that supply new cells to replace those that are lost or dying.1-3

The slow self-renewal process of epidermal stem cells, however, creates a problem. Because each epidermal stem cell only lasts for a certain number of divisions, and because each division runs the risk of lethal DNA mutation, the epidermal stem cell population can become depleted. When this happens, lost or dying skin cells begin to outnumber their replacements and the skin’s health and appearance start to decline.

So what can be done? Scientists turned to plants for the answer.

 

Comparing Apples to Apples

Today, apples are cultivated primarily to enhance their appearance and flavour. But before the rise of refrigeration, an apple’s ability to stay fresh for a long time was its most sought-after characteristic.

For this reason, a special variety of apple was cultivated in the middle of the 18th century that could be stored for a greatly extended period of time. In essence, it was the genetically modified, longer-living stem cells of this tannin-rich variety of apple, called the Uttwiler Spätlauber apple, which were responsible for its unique storage longevity.

In a certain isolated area of rural Switzerland, a few of these hardy apple trees still survive today. Scientists obtained explants from the leaf of one of these trees to produce a special anti-aging stem cell extract.

The Amazing Results

In order to test the theory that this unique plant extract would produce anti-aging effects, scientists at Mibelle Biochemistry first obtained human stem cells from the blood of an umbilical cord. Their first in-house study on cell viability showed that, at a concentration of only 0.1%, an extract of Uttwiler Spätlauber stem cells stimulated the proliferation of human stem cells by an astounding 80%!

In a second experiment, these scientists irradiated the umbilical cord blood stem cells with UV light. Nearly 50% of the stem cells cultured in growth medium alone died, but the cells grown in the culture containing the special apple extract showed only a small decrease in the number of living cells.

Another in vitro experiment conducted by the scientists involved fibroblast cells. These are the most common of all cells in the connective tissue of the skin. They manufacture the collagen, glycosaminoglycans, reticular and elastic fibres, and glycoproteins that make up the extracellular matrix (connective tissues providing support to cells). Fibroblasts not only help provide a structural framework for the skin, they also play a critical role in wound healing.

In their experiment, the scientists treated fibroblast cells with hydrogen peroxide for two hours until the cells began to show classic signs of aging. In scientific terms, this means that several genes essential for cell proliferation and growth were significantly down-regulated. However, after incubating these cells for 144 hours in a 2% Uttwiler Spätlauber apple extract, this down-regulation of genes was effectively neutralized, and in some cases, it was actually reversed! In addition, the scientists noted that the expression of an important antioxidant enzyme called heme oxigenase 1 was also stimulated.

Finally, the scientists conducted a human study to determine the anti-wrinkle effectiveness of a special cream containing a 2% Uttwiler Spätlauber extract along with lecithin liposomes. This patent-pending cream (called PhytoCellTec™ Malus Domestica) was applied twice daily to the crow’s feet area of 20 participants. Wrinkle depth was reduced by an average of 8% after just two weeks, and by 15% after four weeks—thus reducing the signs of aging!

Revitalize your Skin

A potent concentration of this PhytoCellTec™ Malus Domestica is now available to help preserve and protect your vital skin stem cells. This special apple extract complements other ingredients provided in a new topical formula.Revitalize Your Skin
Combined, these ingredients comprise an innovative topical formulation that protects and preserves the youthful look and vitality of your skin in ways never before possible. Just a tiny bit applied to your face, neck, and décolleté area twice daily can help revitalize the tone, texture, and appearance of aging skin.One is a special extract of Chondrus crispus, a red seaweed found only in the cold waters off the Atlantic coast. With its abundance of mineral salts, trace elements, proteins, and vitamins, this extract is an excellent emollient with soothing, anti-inflammatory properties.6 Other anti-aging ingredients are hyaluronic acid (noted for its outstanding moisturizing ability)7 and a concentrated antioxidant tea blend, which helps fight the free radicals that contribute to skin aging.

 

 

APPLE STEM CELLS PROTECT HUMAN SKIN CELLS

Human stem cells on the skin’s epidermis are crucial to replenish the skin cells that are lost due to continual shedding. When epidermal stem cells are depleted, the number of lost or dying skin cells outpaces the production of new cells, threatening the skin’s health and appearance.

Like humans, plants also have stem cells. Enter the stem cells of the Uttwiler Spätlauber apple tree, whose fruit demonstrates an exceptionally long shelf-life. How can these promising stem cells help our skin?

Studies show that apple stem cells boosts production of human stem cells, protect the cell from stress, and decreases wrinkles. How does it work? The internal fluid of these plant cells contains components that help to protect and maintain human stem cells. Apple stem cells contain metabolites to ensure longevity as the tree is known for the fact that its fruits keep well over long periods of time.

When tested in vitro, the apple stem cell extract was applied to human stem cells from umbilical cords and was found to increase the number of the stem cells in culture. Furthermore, the addition of the ingredient to umbilical cord stem cells appeared to protect the cells from environmental stress such as UV light.

Apple stem cells do not have to be fed through the umbilical cord to benefit our skin! The extract derived from the plant cell culture technology is being harnessed as an active ingredient in anti aging skincare products. When delivered into the skin nanotechnology, the apple stem cells provide more dramatic results in decreasing lines, wrinkles, and environmental damage.

THE RESULTS

Currently referred to as ‘The Fountain of Youth’, intense research has proved that with just a concentration level of 0.1 % of the PhytoCellTec (Apple Stem Cell extract) could regenerate a wealth of human stem cells by an astounding 80%! These wonder cells work super efficiently and are completely safe. Of the numerous benefits of apple stems cells, the most predominant include:

  • Increase in the skin stem cell vitality and longevity.
  • Repairs damaged tissues and organs.
  • Activates the skin stem cell regeneration.
  • Protects human stem cells against UV light-induced damage and death.
  • Combats chronological and genetic aging and deep wrinkles formation.
  • Topical application reduces the depth of crow’s feet wrinkles after only two weeks.
  • Targets premature aging and fine lines.
  • Reverses environmental damage.
  • 60-Day results guaranteed

This article was originally published in StemPhytoscience.

Visit www.StemPhytoscience.com to read more details

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